Business to Business (B2B) Sales

B2B Ec 2

Business to Business (B2B) Sales

You’ve probably encountered the acronym “B2B” countless times in your sales career. On the off-chance that you aren’t familiar with the lingo, B2B refers to business to business sales or, in other words, the selling of goods or services to other businesses instead of consumers.

B2B sales are often more complex than B2C (“business to consumer sales”) because they involve selling to trained white collar professionals or decision-makers who themselves are familiar with business sales processes. For this reason, B2B salespeople have to abide by a different set of rules and follow separate strategies than their B2C colleagues.

The truth is that B2B sales are only going to grow in the years ahead, with B2B ecommerce estimated to eclipse a whopping 800.8 trillion in volume by 2023. This is just one reason why it’s so important that you brush up on your business to business sales game. Below, we’ve listed a handful of tried-and-true methods to do just that.

Examples of B2C sales activities

Inside sales activities can involve a wide range of customer types. You will also need to distribute your products through a variety of mediums, such as call centers and live chat rooms. An outside sales job will likely involve going door-to-door.

Who are the B2C consumers?

The B2C consumers are the people who are looking to add value to their lives by adding products that help them achieve some day-to-day solutions. A B2C business offers quick solutions for people who are looking to fulfill their basic essentials or enrich their lives with luxury goods.

It is more common for consumers in B2C to be bargain hunters than B2B buyers. Moreover, their buying decisions, too, are often emotionally driven. There are various factors about the product they are curious about, such as the price, the quality, the problem it solves for them, and how it adds value to their lives.

Sales based on benefits

Providing value to our customers

Relationship building with prospects

The Internet facilitates learning about the products online apart from comparing them, in certain areas of sales, prospects still find a personal service to be the best. To succeed in direct sales, you do not need a lot of experience. However, you do need sales skills, commitment to customer service, and sound strategies.

Although in B2C you will usually come across only a single decision-maker, there could still be too many hurdles converting the prospects. Therefore, it is of prime importance to learn how to build relationships in a short duration.

How are B2C and B2B Sales Jobs Different?

A lot of profit opportunities exist when it comes to B2B sales. The downside is that selling to other businesses can be challenging. Recent research suggests that coordinating and meeting with prospective suppliers is dedicated to a very short time. Reps are, therefore, limited in their ability to influence the purchase decision as they have a limited timeframe to do so.

Establish direct communication with decision-makers

Potential customers and purchasing agents can provide you with opportunities. But you need to establish relationships with decision-makers who are able to pay for your product or service.

Prepare well before you cold-call

Create a competitive advantage

Before going to a sales meeting, familiarize yourself with the unique value proposition of your offering. In order to sell your prospect on tangible results, you should know how your product solves similar problems and be able to demonstrate it.

Be Attentive

It is always better to listen more than you speak. This not only helps you be attentive towards clients’ requirements and concerns but also lets them feel your dedication. In such a scenario, the client is more likely to respond in a positive manner.

Let your prospects choose

Humans love to have options around them to choose from. If you present your client with only one product or solution, chances are that they may hop on to another business for a better price or better product feature, harming your sales funnel. Avoiding this is simple. Offer your customers more options which ensures them that they have seen enough and now is the time to choose. Thus, bringing them closer to the purchase.

FAQs About B2B Ecommerce

What is the difference between B2B and B2C ecommerce?

Due to the nature of B2B ecommerce, B2B transactions typically involve high-value, low-volume sales and fewer buyers. Since B2B transactions are often unique to each customer, price points can be negotiable, and the sales cycle often takes longer than a typical B2C transaction, since there is more money, more product and more decision-makers involved.

On the other hand, B2C transactions are usually low-value and high-volume and serve far more buyers. Just like you can’t negotiate the price of bread at the grocery store, almost all B2C sales are non-negotiable, however coupons and other discounts may be available. And since transactions are typically for less expensive goods, the sales cycle is rapid.

How is the B2B buyer journey different from that of B2C?

Since B2B transactions often involve higher-value goods and services, there is often more risk involved, and therefore the decision-making process is much longer than that of B2C. As a result, purchasing decisions must go through several people and opinions before being approved.

On the other hand, with B2C commerce, a customer is often purchasing products for themselves or a household, so there are normally only one or a few people involved. And because the cost of B2C goods and services is much lower, the sales cycle is often rapid and much less risky.

What is the B2B ecommerce market size?

The global B2B ecommerce market is forecasted to reach 800.8 trillion by 2023, which accounts for 17% of all B2B sales in the U.S. — up from 13% in 2019 and 14% in 2020. In addition, the global B2B ecommerce market in 2020 was valued at $14.9 trillion, which was over five times that of the B2C market.

Do you have to be a supplier to sell B2B online?

No, you do not have to be a supplier in order to sell B2B online. While supplying resellers is a popular type of B2B ecommerce, there are several other types of B2B ecommerce businesses, including wholesalers, distributors and B2B2C companies, and many online brands cater to both B2B and B2C customers.

How are B2B payments made?

Although historically relying on paper-based, manual processes, the B2B payments ecosystem has recently shifted toward cloud-based, automated payment systems. This significantly simplifies the B2B transaction process and makes buying and selling both faster and more efficient for businesses and customers.

Amid the changing landscape, B2B businesses have seen a decline in paper checks and a rise in smart payment options such as contactless and remote payments. And through collaborative commerce, payment providers and fintech companies have worked together to build more automation and reduce friction in the B2B payment process.

Among other methods, B2B businesses can make transactions through flexible payment options like buy now, pay later and virtual cards, much like in the B2C space, and the industry has even seen a trend toward AI, blockchain and cryptocurrency.

How can a B2B ecommerce website support custom ordering?

Thanks to custom quoting tools, unique variants and segmented customer groups, B2B businesses can allow customers to send in a PDF quote 24/7, then evaluate the quote and get back within regular business hours if the unique order can be filled.

Then, your B2B business can place that customer in their own unique customer group so that the next time they order, the customer won’t have to go through the quote engine. Instead, they can simply click and check out the item that is made specially for them.


Writing Center

Outline for a short or simple essay

How to write an effective outline for academic essays

Outlining can be, “Ugh, just another thing I need to do to get my essay done. ” or you can make it an easy and painless task that will help you get through your essay faster when you actually get down to writing it. If you want to learn more about outlines and how to create them, then this article is for you.

Full disclosure: at EssayJack we love outlines because not only are they time-savers but they can be used for virtually any type of communication – essays, speeches, presentations, blogs, letters, proposals, etc. So let’s get started.

Learn to understand the purpose of your essay in order to choose the order and structure of your outline. Includes a bonus tip on how to get an outline done quickly with EssayJack.

Okay, so what is an outline? In the context of an essay, an outline is basically a plan that you create to follow when you’re writing. You can see it as a contents page in a book giving you an overview of what the book covers and in what order.

Whether you’re writing a narrative, descriptive, five-paragraph essay or argumentative essay – you can write an outline for it. The advantages of writing an outline for any essay whether a short 500-word essay or a 10,000-word senior thesis are:

ii) Supporting points – in a five-paragraph essay you will need 3 supporting points while in a longer argumentative essay you might need three to five points with evidence as well. For a descriptive or narrative essay – you will also need points but these will be the various stages in your story that build suspense or move it forward.

iii) Conclusion – how do you want to end your essay? Rounding your essay off with a simple summary, clearly stating what message you wanted your audience to gain from your writing, or some thoughts about what can be further explored or researched in your topic area. Again, this will depend on the level you are writing at. A simple summary might suffice for a five-paragraph essay while a more thoughtful and reflective end might be required for a longer argumentative piece or research paper.

This really depends on the type of essay and the complexity of your arguments. Maybe you’re writing a simple five-paragraph essay. Well then, your outline can be a few lines as long as you include the main idea, supporting points, and a rough conclusion.

For an argumentative essay or an essay at the university level you’ll need to have a more detailed outline with the same components as a simpler outline but with more details that include evidence and explanation for your supporting points. This should be no longer than 1 to 2 pages.

Writing an outline isn’t a process that you need to do at a specific time during the writing process. It all depends on how much research is required, how familiar you might be with the topic, and if you have an idea of what you want to write about. So you might be able to sketch out a quick outline immediately after you’re given an essay question, or you might need to do some research to figure out a thesis or an angle to tackle the topic you’ve been given first.

The good thing about outlining is that it can help you figure out if you’ll need to do more research, refine your thesis, or learn more about topic. If you’re struggling to create an outline with supporting points, evidence, and explanation, then it’s likely that you need to do more reading to support your thesis or learn more about the topic to form an opinion on it.

Yes, of course! An outline among other things helps you think through the logic or flow of your essay. So changing your outline is definitely part of the process. Heck, when you share your outline with someone for a review or some feedback, you might have to add to it, edit or rearrange it.

You can also ask yourself if you have enough reliable sources for the evidence you present for your supporting points. This can also be something your educator can give you feedback on and they may even point you to more resources to include.

By the way, effective note-taking can make the process of outlining much easier. So check out the video below on how to take notes well when you’re researching and reading articles at university.

A topic outline basically means you’re giving each paragraph you’ll be writing a heading. For example, if you’re writing an essay about whether education institutions opening amidst a global pandemic your outline might look like this:

A sentence outline means that you’ll follow the same flow as the above but make sure that each heading then becomes a full sentence that clearly explains what you mean. For example:

Supporting idea 3: We understand more how Covid19 is spread and schools can prepare and take all the precautions needed to make sure the environment is safe for students to go back to classes.


Your introduction provides context to your readers to prepare them for your paper’s argument or purpose. An introduction should begin with discussion of your specific topic (not a broad background overview) and provide just enough context (definitions of key terms, for example) to prepare your readers for your thesis or purpose statement.

Sample Introduction/Context: If the topic of your paper is the link between educational attainment and health, your introduction might do the following: (a) establish the population you are discussing, (b) define key terms such as healthy and well-educated, or (c) justify the discussion of this topic by pointing out a connection to a current problem that your paper will help address.


How To Get a Job With No Experience (With Helpful Tips)

How To Get a Job With No Experience (With Helpful Tips)

Whether you have work experience or not, it’s still possible to get an entry-level job in an exciting field. There are many ways to approach the job market and prove that you’re a viable candidate, even if you haven’t yet held a professional position. Understanding how to tailor your resume, prepare for an interview, and gain additional experience can help to show prospective employers that you’re a competitive candidate. In this article, we explain how to get a job with no experience and provide helpful tips for making yourself more employable.

Understanding how to get a job with no experience in your chosen career path is essential to pursuing jobs that are within your capabilities and proving yourself to be a promising candidate. Not yet possessing the experience listed in a job posting doesn’t mean they can’t consider you during the application process. Here are some steps to follow to impress prospective employers, even if you have no experience:

1. Brainstorm your existing skills

You may not have professional experience working in the career path you’ve chosen to pursue, but you can still provide valuable skills, abilities, and extracurricular experience. Brainstorming and listing all your existing skills is a good way to visualize which of your unique abilities can help you in the role, even without professional experience. Consider transferrable skills you may have gained during your studies, such as communication, time management, or organization.

Listing your extracurricular experience is also a promising way to show your commitment, dedication, and passion, especially if you’ve held a leadership position. Extracurricular activities you’ve been part of in the community, or through your secondary or tertiary institutions, provide insight into your skills and interests, which can be appealing to prospective employers. Some extracurricular experience that can strengthen your job application may include:

2. Gain short-term experience

There are many ways to gain experience relevant to your chosen career path before you apply for your first job. Many short programs allow you to gain skills or experience quickly that help attain a job with related requirements. Some programs may be educational, such as courses or training to gain particular certificates, or could be practical experiences, such as internships or volunteer work. Freelance work is also an effective way to gain short-term professional experience before applying for full-time roles.

3. Write your resume

A key component of applying for any job is constructing an effective resume. Your resume is the best professional opportunity you have in which to submit your experience, education, and certifications for consideration when applying for a job. There are two types of resumes that can help you show potential employers that you’re a suitable candidate and shift the focus from work experience to relevant skills. These are functional and combination resumes, and here’s how they work:

Functional resume

Functional resumes usually put more focus on your relevant skills and abilities, rather than on your specific work history. These resumes often group related skills together, breaking previous experience down into skill subsections. This makes your experience seem broader and directs the reader to the strengths you’ve gained. For example, if you’re applying for an entry-level copywriting job, you may wish to create a skills section that includes abilities like creative writing, blog writing, or technical writing.

In a functional resume, especially when you’re applying for a job that you don’t have experience with, it’s a good idea to involve your personal passions and endeavours. Any activity you’ve taken part in that relates to the job or its skills can benefit a functional resume. Refer to your list of brainstormed existing skills for ideas of relevant experience you can list in this resume.

Combination resume

Combination resumes are a mixture of the functional resume format, and resumes which list more work history like chronological resumes. They focus on experience and skill, but usually focus more on your individual skills than on the work history you’ve collected. If you have no directly relevant work history at all, you can include jobs you’ve held where you may have gained transferrable skills. Similarly, if you’ve never had a job before, you can substitute work history for an education or extra-curricular section.

If you do choose to include a work history section, list the jobs you’ve had in reverse chronological order. Include each job title, the name of the company you worked for, the position you held, and the dates you worked there. You can include any short-term or part-time roles here if you don’t have any full-time experience.

4. Apply for entry-level jobs

The next step in getting your first job in the career path you’ve chosen is to begin applying for jobs that are attainable for people with less experience. These are usually entry-level jobs that develop skills and train those in the role. Entry-level jobs are usually roles with designations such as assistant, technician, or specialist titles.

Change the Rules

Just like any other student who has worked tirelessly for their degree, I had high hopes for how my degree would help me get my first job. But unforeseen situations like COVID-19 can lead to our feeling like we’re navigating an environment that we are not well equipped to handle. However, this couldn’t be more untrue. Opportunities still fully exist and are ours to seize, if we are only willing to think just a little bit outside the box.

Consider the long list of people who were able to do exactly that: Steve Jobs, Jay-Z, and Ellen DeGeneres, to just name a few. The very root of their success was being able to think outside the box and focusing on the areas in which they excelled. So let’s now take a closer look at how this exact premise can apply to you.

Niche Positioning

In an era when everything is changing constantly, we are wired so that our attention easily shifts from one trend to the next. A lot of people bemoan this fact about those in Generation Z, but it is actually a true strength that you probably haven’t yet realized. We are attuned to the world in a way that those older than us may not be: we recognize trends, we implement them fast, and we look for what is coming next.

Simply put, you have the opportunity to position yourself as an innovator—not simply a follower—to potential employers. I will expand on this idea more throughout the article, but now let’s talk about something that is even more important than what we’ve just discussed.


Anyone who’s ever taken a sales training course knows that people buy emotionally and then attempt to justify their choices later. We need to understand the psychology of this in the context of selling ourselves for a job. Consider this scenario: An employer is considering a pool of five candidates, one of which is you, for a position. You excelled at your job interview and got along very well with the recruiters, but the other candidates have better experience. Whom is the employer going to choose?

You are underestimating the importance of being personable and self-confident if you immediately said one of the other candidates. While one’s qualifications and experience are important, people are human, and they are inherently drawn toward those with whom they feel a personal connection. In other words, employers will often hire those they like and will justify why they chose you over someone else later, even though the other person may have been more qualified.

If you have good people skills, that should give you confidence. Self-confidence isn’t something that most have immediately, particularly in the context of finding a job. However, you can certainly build it.

Build Confidence

But how do you build self-confidence that can then be broadcast to potential employers? You can do this by setting yourself up for victory. First, start off in safe or familiar environments where you can build skills and get positive reinforcement. Focus on the transferable skills that you will use for the rest of your life, such as effective listening, speaking/presenting, and teamwork. One way you can accomplish this goal is by joining a local Toastmasters club, or finding a leadership position in one of your school’s organizations.

Get in the Back Door Through Networking

Let’s build on the idea of approaching your job search in an unconventional way. Rather than just applying for jobs where your resume is being compared with those of other highly competitive candidates, get in the backdoor through networking. This is one way to potentially grab a job that is not even being advertised.

Your Current Network

As I am learning from the coaches at YES Career Coaching & Resume Writing Services, most people underestimate or entirely ignore their personal network. Some are not even aware that they have one.

One important aspect to understand in regard to our personal network is that it includes everyone—from your parents, grandparents, siblings, relatives, and friends to your neighbors, teachers, coaches, and even your former babysitters. Every person with whom you have or once had a personal connection is someone whom you can consider to be in your network.

Your New Network

Your new network is everyone else who can be helpful to you, many of whom you may not have even met yet. But your current network is a great source for building this new network, particularly once you know what you need to ask for. In addition to your current network, you can approach building your new professional network from a number of different angles.

For example, you can start by identifying the industries you are interested in and seek authorities in that field. Identify employers in those industries and search for peers, influencers, and decision-makers who work in those industries. LinkedIn is a great place to locate such people. Explicitly asking for a job is not recommended; rather, simply reach out to that person and ask to chat. Even if this chat doesn’t result in a job offer, your knowledge of that industry has likely increased and more importantly, your network has as well. Also, be prepared for the fact that maybe only 15–20% of people will respond, so make sure to cast a wide net and not become easily discouraged. At YES Career Coaching & Resume Writing Services, the coaches ease the difficulty of these tasks by teaching their clients how to approach these strangers, how to engage them, and what to ask for.


Now that you know how to get a job with no experience, it’s time to get the process started. Work through this list and see what tips will benefit your particular situation the most!

Hannah Morgan speaks and writes about job search and career strategies. She founded to educate professionals on how to maneuver through today’s job search process. Hannah was nominated as a LinkedIn Top Voice in Job Search and Careers and is a regular contributor to US News & World Report. She has been quoted by media outlets, including Forbes, USA Today, Money Magazine, Huffington Post, as well as many other publications. She is also author of The Infographic Resume and co-author of Social Networking for Business Success.


Four Ways How Reading Makes You a Better Writer

faulkner reading quote

Four Ways How Reading Makes You a Better Writer

Many athletes agree that competing with someone more skilled can be very useful because it motivates you to improve your own skills. In the same way, reading examples of good writing can help you understand what areas you need to improve. Besides, you can see what approaches are effective and use them in your work.

How Reading Makes You a Better Writer

No matter what skill you want to master, you should know what you’re doing, and writing is no exception. Although the connection between reading and writing is rather obvious, many people still forget how important reading is for developing strong writing skills. People who love to read books can learn a lot from them and use these examples to improve their own writing.

Of course, not all writers write novels. For example, there are technical writers, bloggers, copywriters, journalists, and many other professionals who need good writing skills. Classical literature may not help you if you want to write for a tech blog, but it doesn’t mean that you shouldn’t read. The main thing is to choose reading materials that can actually be useful for you. You can always read articles related to your niche or other textual materials similar to what you’re going to write. It’s especially important for students. Sometimes students have a lot of writing work or different disciplines. The professionals of underline the quality of literature and sources.

Many athletes agree that competing with someone more skilled can be very useful because it motivates you to improve your own skills. In the same way, reading examples of good writing can help you understand what areas you need to improve. Besides, you can see what approaches are effective and use them in your work. Here are the four main reasons why reading can make you a better writer.

Reading can improve your vocabulary

First of all, reading can improve your vocabulary. In fact, reading is probably the only way one can learn new words. If your writing suffers from repetition or if you realize that you often try to describe your thoughts more precisely but don’t know how to do it, the chances are that your vocabulary needs some improvement.

The best solution is to read materials related to your subject or niche and to write down words that look interesting to you. If you want to better understand the meaning of some new words, look them up and write down their meaning. Check out definitions, grammar, and the way these words are used in sentences.

Another good practice is called close reading. Close reading is a continuous process of reading and writing. Combining these two activities in a loop is a great exercise for your brain. This way, you can use new words immediately, quickly memorizing them. The main thing about expanding your vocabulary through reading is not to fixate on results and to maintain the learning process as a habit.

Skip sections

I’m one of those people who feels bad if I miss anything (sometimes known as ‘fear of missing out‘). When it comes to reading, I definitely feel this. If something further ahead catches my eye, I can’t keep reading until I go back and catch up on the parts I missed.

I’ve actually realized recently that there is a kind of freedom in giving up that feeling of needing to see everything. Sometimes, it’s okay to skip parts. Especially if they’re not relevant to you. Readers on the web skim for a reason. In fact it has almost become our default way of reading, as this eye-tracking study shows:


When we’re reading on the web, we’ll often find handy stuff to help us do this, like subheadings or bold text. These can help us skim through and get the gist of an article quickly, so we can decide whether to go back and reread the parts we skipped.

A short bonus regarding long reads: in case of doubt, skip to the conclusion. If it’s worthy of understanding how the author got there, read it all. If not, congratulations. You just avoided wasting time.

One of the benefits of skipping over sections is that you’re not overloading your brain with irrelevant information, so the info that is going in can be processed more easily. Hopefully, this method can help us to remember more of what we read!

All the information we have available only increases our stress levels and diminishes available time. We consume much more than we create, we read much more than we think, and it should be the other way around. We have to make sure we consume the things that truly matter to us, but only so that we have time to create something that matters to someone else. – Roberto Estreitinho

Quit altogether

The older I get, the more I’m becoming a fan of quitting. Not for the sake of it, of course, but when continuing on doesn’t have enough (or any) benefits, sometimes pulling out is the best option.

One of the results of this self-examination — for that is what the writing of this book amounts to — is the confirmed belief that one should read less and less, not more and more…. I have not read nearly as much as the scholar, the bookworm, or even the ‘well-educated’ man — yet I have undoubtedly read a hundred times more than I should have read for my own good. Only one out of five in America, it is said, are readers of ‘books.’ But even this small number read far too much. Scarcely any one lives wisely or fully.

To speak without shame about books we haven’t read, we would thus do well to free ourselves of the oppressive image of cultural literacy without gaps, as transmitted and imposed by family and school, for we can strive toward this image for a lifetime without ever managing to coincide with it.

How Reading Makes You a Better Writer

One can’t complete a course or graduate from a university with a “bestselling writer” diploma. And one can’t become a good writer by learning all grammar rules and several writing techniques by heart. Literacy matters, but it doesn’t make you a writer per se .

Can you imagine a musician not listening to music? The same is true for writing. Writers work for readers, and no grammar rules or schemes can help you understand people if you don’t read.


Faulkner wasn’t alone in such an approach. Ray Bradbury said that he “spent three days a week” in a public library for ten years, and it was “better than college.” He called a library his alma mater and believed it could give “a complete education for no money.”

We know that Bradbury came from a modest family and didn’t have a chance to graduate from university. And yet, thousands of books he read helped him become “the writer most responsible for bringing modern science fiction into the literary mainstream.” ( The New York Times )

Thus, our writers at Bid4Papers are all bookworms; otherwise, they won’t be able to deliver academic papers of high quality when you ask to “ write my essay .” They read and research tons of material to outline and write the best essays for you.

How to Read More to Write Better

It’s not enough to merely read, even if you absorb hundreds of books. All those challenges a la “I’ll read 100 books this year” are bulls**t if you don’t understand and can’t analyze what you read.

Here they go:

  • Identify a genre.
  • Examine the language and writing style of the book. Try to analyze why it works or doesn’t work.
  • Consider a structure: linear, random, or pyramidic. What format tricks does a writer use to tell this story?
  • Identify the topic and tone of the book.
  • Examine sentences. How does the author write? Are sentences long? Is the language simple or complex?
  • Consider writing techniques an author uses. Do they work well?
  • Watch your response to a story. Does it make you sit up and take notice? Or, is it predictable? Try to understand why it’s so.
  • Read and compare two different books. What does make them interesting? What did the authors do to achieve that?
  • Don’t hesitate to read writings that you wouldn’t ordinarily read.
  • Make notes for everything that strikes you in the book and what makes you give up this story. Try to come up with the reason for such a reaction.


Enjoy what you read. After all, reading is not about pure analyzing and learning but joy as well. If a story is boring, don’t force yourself to read it. And if you don’t understand what happens in a story because you’re overanalyzing it, don’t give up the pleasure of reading for bare book reviews. If you read for fun, you’ll learn something anyway.


How Reading Makes You a Better Student

No matter how hard you try, you can’t escape reading when a student. And if you continue considering War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy the worst reading nightmare ever, we have bad news for you:


Plenty of research and studies prove: reading has a positive impact on student minds. The more you read in school, the better cognitive skills you get. Also, reading helps kids with self-identification and expanding a worldview.

“Those with the poorest reading skills and the greatest risk of social exclusion were least likely at 16 to have parents who went to their school to discuss their progress. They were most likely to leave school at 16 and feel that school is a waste of time. At 30, they were most likely to be unemployed and feel that ‘whatever I do has no real effect on what happens in my life.’” ( Source )


How Long Should a Cover Letter Be? The Ideal Length in 2022

How long should a cover letter be - example of ideal word count

One Page Cover Letter—Example of a Cover With the Right Number of Wordsone page cover letter

If that’s the case, just skip the cover letter heading and start with Dear [Hiring Manager’s Name]. Plus, make it as compact as possible—get rid of all the fluff and do your best to reduce the message to the absolute minimum. Take a look at how it’s done in the example below where the main body is only 120 words:

I’m very excited about the software engineer position at Igatronix, Inc. I’m confident I can help you become the #1 SaaS video editing platform on the web. For one, I led the team that won the Bossie for an online video editing application.

I’ve been a huge fan of Igatronix products for several years. It’s your commitment to letting employees guide the life cycle that delivers your success. You value self-motivated, highly creative software engineers, and my record speaks for itself.

Create the perfect resume

How to Arrange Your Cover Letter to Make the Most of Its Length

Can a cover letter be 2 pages?

A cover letter should never be 2 pages. A 2-page cover letter violates the cover letter definition. Namely, a cover letter is a brief description of why you fit the job. In rare cases, a resume can be two pages if you’ve got enough experience.

Is my cover letter too long?

A cover letter is too long if it’s a full page or longer. Three-page or two-page cover letters are a waste of paper. A cover letter should be about three paragraphs of facts explaining why you’re perfect for the position.

Should a cover letter be one page?

A cover letter should always be less than one page. Short cover letters get more eye-time with managers. A cover letter that’s less than a page sends an instant signal to the manager that your letter won’t run over to page 2.

How many words should a cover letter be?

Cover letter word count should be between 200 and 400 words (300 is the sweet spot.) Why? Because that’s the right length to fill up slightly more than half a page with 12-point font. But that’s not how you’ll get the interview.

How long should an electronic cover letter be?

An electronic cover letter should be the length of cover letters on paper. Namely, three paragraphs, 250-300 words, and less than a full page. The difference is, write a great subject line and leave the address section off the top.

Should a cover letter be double spaced?

A cover letter should not be double spaced. Always single space a cover letter. That includes the address. The only place to double space a cover letter is in between the paragraphs. That is: insert a blank line after each paragraph ends.

What about academic cover letter length?

A cover letter for an academic position should be no longer than two pages, but long enough to show off your accomplishments. Research, teaching, departmental service, and relevant accolades. The typical academic cover letter is usually one and a half to two pages long (or about five to eight paragraphs.)

Why does the right length of cover letter matter?

Identify what’s relevant and ignore all the rest. How? Treat the job offer as a guide and only touch upon the things it mentions. Say what you can do to help the company in the areas specified by the recruiter in the ad.

Have someone read your cover letter and ask them for a critique. The thing is that it’s very hard to see redundancies and inconsistencies in your own piece of writing. Give it to someone who’ll look at it with fresh eyes.

If the right cover letter length is about 400 words, do your best to stay below this limit. Also, double-check if the employer hasn’t specified their own limits anywhere. If they did, stick to these.

Imposing a limit on the length of your cover letter will make you less likely to give everything away too soon. In other words, do show your best side on the cover letter, but keep some aces up your sleeve for the interview.

White space is your friend, so don’t fill up the entire page with densely packed paragraphs. Set one-inch margins all around, left-align the contents, choose an elegant cover letter font, and don’t go below 11pt in terms of the font size. But don’t overdo it. Adding double spaces between lines of text is not such a great idea—stick to single line spacing or 1.15 at the maximum.

matching set of resume and cover letter

Structuring your Cover Letter

Cover Letter Length: Salutation

Cover Letter Length: 1st paragraph

CCP & TTL1 Certified Collection Manager & Credit Analyst with a prolific 16-year track record of overseeing collection management and credit control for Fortune 500 companies. Adept at conceptualizing and implementing initiatives to drive continuous process improvement within the control and compliance framework to achieve operational excellence, I am extremely interested in the profile of Collection Manager & Credit Analysis Expert at Bro Code.

How long is a cover letter first paragraph?

Cover Letter Length: 2nd paragraph

In my present tenure as the Assistant Manager at Accenture, I have been independently managing 11 accounts while incubating and managing a team of 15 to supervise collections from Expedia on behalf of Marriott. As the Lead at IBM UK across London, Manchester & Liverpool, I spearheaded the Cash & Collections Application team to steer process development and deliver stellar levels of customer service. In my previous role as the Process Developer at Miss Effective, I effectively executed the Green Belt project (US/London) while steering process migration for USA Business Credit Services.

How long is a cover letter second paragraph?

Cover Letter Length: 3rd paragraph

I was declared a recipient of the Top Collector Award & Maintenance Award while demonstrating the capability to achieve 99% accuracy and productively managing a portfolio of USD 1.5 M per month.

How long is a cover letter third paragraph?

Pro Tip: To get the right cover letter length, use one inch margins and 12 point font. Add white space between paragraphs to give the hiring manager’s eyes a pit-stop. Also, make it single-spaced, not double-spaced.

Cover Letter Length: 4th/5th paragraph

It is difficult to come away un-awed by the passion for excellence that Bro Code has displayed in its meteoric rise to become a stalwart in this domain. Despite a presence in 9 countries, it values its employees & ensures a continuous learning environment. Hence, I consider Bro Code to be my most preferred employer.
Enclosed for your consideration is my resume. I’d appreciate the opportunity to further discuss my suitability and qualifications with you on call or in person.

How long is a cover letter fourth paragraph?

Cover Letter Length: Signature

Cover Letter Infographic

Academic Cover Letter Length

Further, if asked, it may also encompass a “Statement Of Purpose”. The SOP relates to the readers the motivation/inspiration of the candidate behind opting for the particular position he/she is seeking.

Should a cover letter be of 2 pages?

Should a cover letter be of 1 page?

Is my cover letter too lengthy?

What should be the font size for my cover letter?

How many words should a cover letter be of?

How long should a digital cover letter be?

Should there be double spacing in a cover letter?

How long should a cover letter be for an internship?

The basic principle of a cover letter for an internship and a cover letter for a job is the same. The only differene is that, in internship cover letter, you need to focus more on your academics and extracarricular activities.

What length should an academic cover letter be?

Does the length of a cover letter matter?

How long does it take to write a Cover Letter?


Operating systems

The barriers to entry in IT are lower than most people think. A commitment to learning, self-growth and finding a job that lets you capitalize on your innate strengths are some of the most important factors involved in switching careers into IT.

Woman looking at phone OS

5 Most Popular Operating Systems

Hands on computer keyboard | Operating system

You’ve probably been involved in a “PC versus Mac” argument at some point in your life. Everyone seems to have very strong opinions on the subject, but what it really comes down to is personal preference in operating systems.

Most people know that they like one or another but may not be able to pinpoint what they really prefer about them. They may say they like a particular command prompt, or they enjoy some pre-installed software, the look and feel of the hardware, the applications or systems they can download, or even the pre-installed web browser. But the reality is that the features of an OS aren’t immediately clear to most users. A resource to help users understand the different processing and interaction elements of their favorite OS helps it become easier to work with.

Students (particularly online students), freelancers, contractors, and anyone who owns a phone, computer, or tablet should learn about different OSs so they can pick a computer and OS that meet their needs. If you’re planning to study IT in school and pursue an IT career, you’ll want a strong knowledge of OSs to make sure you’re prepared for all the skills you’ll need to be successful in your field.

What Is the Purpose of an Operating System?

  • Booting: Booting is the process of turning on the computer and powering up the system.
  • Memory management: This feature controls and coordinates the computer applications while allocating space for programs.
  • Loading and execution: Your OS will load, or start up, a program and then execute the program so that it opens and runs.
  • Data security: A good OS includes features that keep your data safe and computer programs secure. Security features are set up to keep unwanted cyberattackers at bay.
  • Disk management: This manages all the drives installed in a computer, including hard drives, optical disk drives, and flash drives. Disk management can also be used to divide disks, format drives, and more.
  • Process management: Your OS is designed to allocate resources to different computer processes, enable the processes to share information, protect them, and synchronize them.
  • Device controlling: Your OS will allow you to open or block access to devices like removable devices, CD/DVDs, data transfer devices, USBs, and more.
  • Printing controlling: As an extension of device controlling, your OS takes control of the printers that are connected to the computer, and the materials that need to be printed.
  • User interface: Also referred to as a UI, this is the part of the OS that allows a user to enter and receive information. This can be done with typed commands, code, and other formats.

Women looking at tablet OS

The Five Most Popular Operating Systems

There are five main types of operating systems. These five OS types are likely what run your phone, computer, or other mobile devices like a tablet. Whether you’re just a normal computer and phone user or someone hoping to get involved in an IT career, knowledge of applications and systems types will help you maintain security and user access, perform routine operations, and much more.

Microsoft Windows.

The Windows OS has been around since the 1980s and has had several versions and updates (including Windows 95, Windows Vista, Windows 7/8/10, etc.) Microsoft Windows is one of the popular operating system types and is preloaded on most new PC hardware. With each new Windows update or release, Microsoft continues to work on improving their users’ experience, hardware, and software, making Windows more accessible and easier to use.

Microsoft Windows contains a control panel, a desktop and desktop assistant, disk cleanup, event viewer, and more. Many users prefer Microsoft Windows because they say it’s compatible with many other kinds of software. Many kinds of computer programs run best on Microsoft Windows because they’re developed by Microsoft.

Apple macOS.

Head-to-head in the competition with Microsoft Windows is Apple’s macOS. macOS and Windows are both examples of proprietary operating systems, meaning that the company conceptualized, designed, developed, and now sells their own OS. They’re designed and sold by the companies and aren’t meant to be tampered with or tweaked by users. Apple and Macintosh computers run on the proprietary macOS and OS X system, the first of which launched 20 years ago. There are also previous versions or updates which include:

The macOS and Apple/Mac products are also known and beloved by their users for ease of use and continually improving user experience. Fast processing speeds, a simple desktop interface, and a wide variety of helpful resources make users excited about macOS. Many users relish the instant connection with their computers and mobile phone hardware, and enjoy the lack of bugs and hackers that Apple systems are known for.

Operating System Defined

To define the term operating system, let’s think in terms of stacks – one of the most common models used to describe computer systems. From network operations to software applications to emerging technology, solutions usually have multiple pieces that build on each other. Operating systems are no different.

A diagram illustrating how operating systems connect applications to hardware.

The hardware is the foundation of any computing device – the physical pieces such as processors, memory or input/output ports. Direct access and control of this hardware is not user friendly because it only understands certain commands, and these commands are directly tied to the function of the hardware in a way that many people do not understand.

This is where an operating system comes in. The OS acts as a translation layer, creating user-friendly options, like a graphical user interface (GUI) with point-and-click capability, that are mapped to the hardware command language.

Of course, having access to the hardware is still not very useful for the average user. That access alone does not allow people to write documents, view pictures or surf the internet. For those actions, system software applications are needed. The most common way that an OS is used is as a platform for software developers, who use the translation capabilities to build application programs for end users

What Is an Operating System Kernel?

The stack model can also be applied to the operating system itself. The primary piece that performs translation for the hardware is known as the kernel. Given the costs involved with developing both hardware and software, there are clearly constraints around building new kernels, and the dynamics between hardware components and OS kernels have defined much of the current IT industry. This will be explored more in the section on different operating systems.

A diagram illustrating how the operating system (libraries, API, UI) is built on top of the kernel to direct the hardware.

  • Software libraries that are unique to a given OS
  • The application programming interface (API) that allows developers to build applications
  • The user interface (UI) that makes a device accessible to everyone, regardless of technical expertise

What Is Firmware?

Firmware is a specialized example of an operating system. The most popular operating systems are designed to be flexible. They can be used on many different devices, and they can act as a platform for many types of applications. Firmware is a much more focused device driver. Rather than providing openness, firmware is directly tied to specific hardware and provides a limited set of functions.

The reason that firmware is used rather than a more open operating system is performance. By focusing specifically on the exact hardware used and by limiting the functionality, developers can improve real-time performance and efficiency, or they can deliver a specific level of performance at a reasonable cost. This is important in situations where performance is critical or the functionality is already limited and cost becomes a major factor. Firmware is found in many single-purpose devices, such as printers and smart devices used in the internet of things.

Firmware vs. Software

Technically, the term software is very broad, covering any product written in a programming language that runs on computing hardware. In most cases, people use the term software when referring to applications that help with multitasking, such as spreadsheets, photo editing or video games.

However, operating systems and firmware are both examples of software as well. Since they usually come pre-installed and are tied so tightly to the basic operation of a device, they are more transparent for most users. However, operating systems are a type of software, and firmware is a type of operating system.

A venn diagram showing that firmware is an operating system and an operating system is software, therefore firmware is software.

What Does an Operating System Do?

First, the OS manages the hardware on the device. This may include a central processing unit (CPU), a graphics processing unit (GPU), memory (including RAM and hard drives) and input/output (including keyboard, monitor, USB ports, etc.). All of these components perform different functions, and they usually come from a variety of suppliers. Tying it all together and making it work cohesively is the first job of the OS.

Second, an OS provides access for other developers to build software. For general purpose systems – such as personal computers and mobile devices – people want to perform a wide variety of tasks. Software developers can utilize the API provided by an operating system to build out the functionality of their program. Of course, different kernels use different APIs, so developers who want their software on multiple platforms have to build multiple versions.

Finally, an OS makes the device usable. Some operating systems only have a command-line interface, and users must have specific expertise to understand which commands to use. Other operating systems have a GUI, making the operation of the device much more accessible. Over the past decade, the types of UI have evolved to include touchscreens, gestures and voice commands.

What Types of Operating Systems Are There?

Common Desktop Operating Systems

Windows: Microsoft’s desktop OS is possibly the most important piece of software in tech history. In the 1980s, Microsoft developed a partnership with Intel, and the combination of the Windows operating system with Intel processors (known as the Wintel platform) took the world by storm.

Microsoft Windows became the OS used by a majority of people as the PC reached mass adoption – in January 2010, Windows was on 92% of all computing devices worldwide. Today, Windows is still a critical fixture, especially in business, where both Windows laptops and servers are well entrenched.

macOS: Historically, Apple’s desktops and laptops have not enjoyed the same market presence as Windows machines, but the original MacIntosh operating system introduced several GUI concepts that were later featured in Windows. As Apple became dominant in the mobile space, its Mac platform grew as well, with the OS evolving into OS X and now the current iteration as macOS.

Linux: Linux is … complicated. The history of Linux starts with the UNIX OS, released in 1971 by AT&T’s Bell Labs and made popular through the 1970s thanks to portability to different computing platforms and the antitrust requirement for AT&T to freely provide licenses when asked. When Bell Labs made UNIX proprietary after being divested from AT&T, the GNU Project was started to create free UNIX-like software.

In 1991, the Linux kernel was developed and incorporated into the GNU project, leading to an explosion of operating systems based on the Linux kernel. While the term Linux is often used as a name for an OS, there are technically many versions of the Linux operating system (known as distributions). These distributions, such as Ubuntu or Red Hat Enterprise Linux, are found in a wide variety of computing devices, including IBM.

Chrome: Google’s Chrome OS, used primarily in Chromebook laptops, is one of the operating systems based on the Linux kernel. It uses the Chrome browser as the primary user interface, limiting the user’s ability to access applications outside of the browser. This transfers most of the computing complexity to the internet, driving down the cost of the devices. Thanks to the low cost and the high degree of control, this Chromebook operating system has become popular in the education vertical.

Common Mobile Operating Systems

A pie chart showing the market share of major operating systems: Android, Windows, iOS and macOS.

Because Android is free and open source, it has been used by many device manufacturers and has become the most popular OS in the world. As of April 2020, Android has 39% market share, compared to 33% for Windows, 17% for iOS and 8% for macOS(Statcounter).
tablets. The Android operating system was originally developed by Google and is now developed and maintained by the Open Handset Alliance, which is sponsored by Google.

iOS: In contrast to Android, Apple’s iOS is proprietary and only found on its own devices. In 2019, Apple announced that iPads would run on a variant of iOS known as iPadOS, but both iPhones and iPads are still generally considered iOS devices.

Although Android has greater market share, iOS devices dominate the high end of the mobile market, making iOS more attractive to developers and giving iOS the appearance of relatively even standing with Android.

Operating Systems Used in Internet of Things (IoT) Devices

Most IoT devices have firmware rather than a full OS, since the device has limited functionality and greater constraints around performance, power consumption and cost. This firmware is often either proprietary or based on the Linux kernel.

In the cases where a device might have a more robust operating system, the OS is somewhat transparent. For example, Amazon’s Echo devices use Fire OS, Amazon’s proprietary OS based on the Linux kernel. However, most people don’t recognize Fire OS as part of the device, typically identifying more with the Alexa UI.

For IT professionals, understanding the basics behind operating systems and the different ways that they might appear on devices is a key part of providing support. As part of the standard technology stack, operating systems are the bridge between the user that has a job to do and the hardware resources that can get the job done.

IT support professionals, such as help desk technicians, interact with operating systems daily. CompTIA A+ covers the skills needed to install, manage and troubleshoot operating systems. Download the exam objectives for free to see the skills you need to work in IT support.

Operating systems

This loop processes the entire header data. We do not provide any sort of LTC_FAST optimizations, since headers are usually empty or very short. Every 16 bytes of header data, we encrypt the PAD to emulate CBC-MAC properly.

Modern Operating System

Modern operating systems provide a general-purpose mechanism for processing data larger than available main memory called virtual memory. Transparent to the program, swapping moves parts of the data back and forth from disk as needed. Usually, the virtual address space is divided into units calledpages; the corresponding equal-size units in physical memory are called page frames. A page table maps the virtual addresses on the page frames and keeps track of their status (loaded/absent). When a page fault occurs (i.e., a program tries to use an unmapped page), the CPU is interrupted; the operating system picks a rarely picked page frame and writes its contents back to the disk. It then fetches the referenced page into the page frame just freed, changes the map, and restarts the trapped instruction. In modern computers memory management is implemented on hardware with a page size commonly fixed at 4,096 bytes.

Various paging strategies have been explored that aim at minimizing page faults. Belady has shown that an optimal offline page exchange strategy deletes the page that will not be used for a long time. Unfortunately, the system, unlike possibly the application program itself, cannot know this in advance. Several different online algorithms for the paging problem have been proposed, such as last-in-first-out (LIFO), first-in-first-out (FIFO), least-recently-used (LRU), and least-frequently-used (LFU). Despite that Sleator and Tarjan proved that LRU is the best general online algorithm for the problem, we reduce the number of page faults by designing data structures that exhibit memory locality, such that successive operations tend to access nearby memory cells.

Sometimes it is even desirable to have explicit control of secondary memory manipulations. For example, fetching data structures larger than the system page size may require multiple disk operations. A file buffer can be regarded as a kind of software paging that mimics swapping on a coarser level of granularity. Generally, an application can outperform the operating system’s memory management because it is well informed to predict future memory access.

Particularly for search algorithms, system paging often becomes the major bottleneck. This problem has been experienced when applying A* to the domain of route planning. Moreover, A* does not respect memory locality at all; it explores nodes in the strict order of f-values, regardless of their neighborhood, and hence jumps back and forth in a spatially unrelated way.

Microsoft Windows Operating Systems for PCs

MS-DOS – Microsoft Disk Operating System

Originally developed by Microsoft for IBM, MS-DOS was the standard operating system for IBM-compatible personal computers. The initial versions of DOS were very simple and resembled another operating system called CP/M. Subsequent versions have become increasingly sophisticated as they incorporated features of minicomputer operating systems.

Windows 1.0

Screenshot of Windows 1.0.

Introduced in 1985, Microsoft Windows 1.0 was named due to the computing boxes, or “windows” that represented a fundamental aspect of the operating system. Instead of typing MS-DOS commands, Windows 1.0 allowed users to point and click to access the windows.

Windows 2.0

Screenshot of Windows 2.0.

Windows 3.0

Screenshot of Windows 3.0.

Windows 3.0 was released in May, 1900 offering better icons, performance and advanced graphics with 16 colors designed for Intel 386 processors. This version was the first release that provided the standard “look and feel” of Microsoft Windows for many years to come. Windows 3.0 included Program Manager, File Manager, Print Manager and games like Hearts, Minesweeper, and Solitaire. Microsoft released Windows 3.1 in 1992.

Windows NT 3.1 – 4.0

Screenshot of Windows NT.

Windows NT (New Technology) was a 32-bit operating system that supported preemptive multitasking. There are actually two versions of Windows NT: Windows NT Server, designed to act as a server in networks, and Windows NT Workstation for stand-alone or client workstations.

Windows 95

Screenshot of Windows 95.

Windows 95 was a major upgrade to the Windows operating system. This OS was a significant advancement over its precursor, Windows 3.1. In addition to sporting a new user interface, Windows 95 also included a number of important internal improvements. Perhaps most important, it supported 32-bit applications, which meant that applications written specifically for this operating system would run much faster.

Although Windows 95 was able to run older Windows and DOS applications, it essentially removed DOS as the underlying platform. This resulted in the removal of many of the old DOS limitations, such as 640K of main memory and 8-character filenames. Other important features in this operating system were the ability to automatically detect and configure installed hardware (Plug-and-Play).

Windows 98

Screenshot of Windows 98.

Windows 98 supported a number of new technologies, including FAT32, AGP, MMX, USB, DVD, and ACPI. Its most visible feature, though, was the Active Desktop, which integrated the Web browser (Internet Explorer) with the operating system. From the user’s point of view, there was no difference between accessing a document residing locally on the user’s hard disk or on a Web server halfway around the world.

Windows 2000

Screenshot of Windows 2000.

Often abbreviated as “W2K,” Windows 2000 was an operating system for business desktop and laptop systems to run software applications, connect to Internet and intranet sites, and access files, printers, and network resources. Microsoft released four versions of Windows 2000: Professional (for business desktop and laptop systems); Server (both a Web server and an office server); Advanced Server (for line-of-business applications); and Datacenter Server (for high-traffic computer networks).

Windows Millennium Edition (ME)

Screenshot of Windows ME.

The Windows Millennium Edition, called “Windows Me” was an update to the Windows 98 core and included some features that would be part of the Windows 2000 operating system. This version also removed the “Boot in DOS” option.

Microsoft Operating Systems for Servers and Mobile Devices

Windows Server

Windows Server is a series of Microsoft server operating systems. Windows servers are more powerful versions of their desktop operating system counterparts and are designed to more efficiently handle corporate networking, internet/intranet hosting, databases, enterprise-scale messaging and similar functions. The Windows Server name made its debut with the release of Windows Server 2003 and continues with the current release, Windows Server 2022.

Windows CE (November 2006)

A version of the Windows operating system was designed for small devices such as personal digital assistants (PDAs) or Handheld PCs in the Microsoft vernacular). The Windows CE graphical user interface (GUI) was very similar to Windows 95 so devices running Windows CE were meant to be familiar to Windows 95 users.

Windows Home Server

Announced in January 2007, Windows Home Server (WHS) was a “consumer server” designed to use with multiple computers connected in the home. Home Server allowed users to share files such as digital photos and media files, and also automatically backed up home networked computers. Through Windows Media Connect, Windows Home Server shared any media located on your WHS with compatible devices.

Windows Mobile

The mobile operating system for smartphones and mobile devices from Microsoft was based on the Windows CE kernel and designed to look and operate similar to desktop versions of Microsoft Windows. Windows Mobile was largely been supplanted by Windows Phone 7, although Microsoft did release, in 2011, Windows Embedded Handheld 6.5, a mobile OS compatible with Windows Mobile 6.5 that was designed for enterprise mobile and handheld computing devices.

Windows Phone

Windows’ mobile operating system for smartphones and mobile devices served as the successor to Microsoft’s initial mobile OS platform system, Windows Mobile. Unlike Windows Mobile, Windows Phone 7 was targeted more to the consumer market than the enterprise market. “WinPhone7” replaced the more traditional Microsoft Windows OS look and feel with new “Metro” design system introduced in Windows 8.

Windows Phone 7 featured a multi-tab Internet Explorer Mobile Web browser that used a rendering engine based on Internet Explorer 9. It also included Microsoft Office Mobile, a version of Microsoft Office tailored for mobile devices. Its successors included Windows Phone 8 and Windows 10 Mobile. Microsoft announced the end of life for Windows Phone on January 14, 2020.

Webopedia’s Top 5 Study Guides

This article was last updated February 22, 2021 by Kaiti Norton.

Vangie Beal

What’s the Difference Between Firmware and an OS?

Many devices just run “firmware“—a type of low-level software that’s generally programmed directly into the memory of a hardware device. Firmware is usually just a small bit of software designed to do only the absolute basics.

When a modern computer boots up, it loads UEFI firmware from the motherboard. This firmware is low-level software that quickly initializes your computer’s hardware. It then boots your operating system from your computer’s solid-state drive or hard drive. (That solid-state drive or hard drive has its own internal firmware, which handles storing data on the physical sectors inside the drive.)

The line between firmware and an operating system can get a little blurry, too. For example, the operating system for Apple’s iPhones and iPads, named iOS, is often called a “firmware.” The PlayStation 4’s operating system is officially called a firmware, too.

These are operating systems that interface with multiple hardware devices, provide services to programs, and allocate resources among applications. However, a very basic firmware that runs on a TV remote control, for example, isn’t generally called an operating system.

The average person doesn’t need to understand exactly what an operating system is. It may be helpful to know what operating system you have to know which software and hardware your device is compatible with, however.

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Chris Hoffman
Chris Hoffman is Editor-in-Chief of How-To Geek. He’s written about technology for over a decade and was a PCWorld columnist for two years. Chris has written for The New York Times and Reader’s Digest, been interviewed as a technology expert on TV stations like Miami’s NBC 6, and had his work covered by news outlets like the BBC. Since 2011, Chris has written over 2,000 articles that have been read nearly one billion times—and that’s just here at How-To Geek.
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Operating systems

IBM no longer develops OS/2, but a company named Serenity Systems has the rights to continue distributing it. They call their operating system eComStation. It’s based on IBM’s OS/2 and adds additional applications, drivers, and other enhancements.

Modern Operating System

Modern operating systems provide a general-purpose mechanism for processing data larger than available main memory called virtual memory. Transparent to the program, swapping moves parts of the data back and forth from disk as needed. Usually, the virtual address space is divided into units calledpages; the corresponding equal-size units in physical memory are called page frames. A page table maps the virtual addresses on the page frames and keeps track of their status (loaded/absent). When a page fault occurs (i.e., a program tries to use an unmapped page), the CPU is interrupted; the operating system picks a rarely picked page frame and writes its contents back to the disk. It then fetches the referenced page into the page frame just freed, changes the map, and restarts the trapped instruction. In modern computers memory management is implemented on hardware with a page size commonly fixed at 4,096 bytes.

Various paging strategies have been explored that aim at minimizing page faults. Belady has shown that an optimal offline page exchange strategy deletes the page that will not be used for a long time. Unfortunately, the system, unlike possibly the application program itself, cannot know this in advance. Several different online algorithms for the paging problem have been proposed, such as last-in-first-out (LIFO), first-in-first-out (FIFO), least-recently-used (LRU), and least-frequently-used (LFU). Despite that Sleator and Tarjan proved that LRU is the best general online algorithm for the problem, we reduce the number of page faults by designing data structures that exhibit memory locality, such that successive operations tend to access nearby memory cells.

Sometimes it is even desirable to have explicit control of secondary memory manipulations. For example, fetching data structures larger than the system page size may require multiple disk operations. A file buffer can be regarded as a kind of software paging that mimics swapping on a coarser level of granularity. Generally, an application can outperform the operating system’s memory management because it is well informed to predict future memory access.

Particularly for search algorithms, system paging often becomes the major bottleneck. This problem has been experienced when applying A* to the domain of route planning. Moreover, A* does not respect memory locality at all; it explores nodes in the strict order of f-values, regardless of their neighborhood, and hence jumps back and forth in a spatially unrelated way.

Data Management

Memory management

Modern operating systems provide the abstraction of virtual memory to user processes ( Peter Denning—Virtual Memory, 1970 ). Virtual memory hides the true storage medium and makes data byte addressable regardless of where it actually resides. Operating systems provide each process a separate virtual memory address space, allowing them to execute with the entire virtual address space at their disposal. The most important aspect of virtual memory for this discussion is that it allows a process to execute without the need to have all of its code and data resident in the CPU main memory (i.e., DRAM).

The virtual address space of a process is divided into fixed-size blocks, called pages. In the physical memory system, the physical address space (the range of actual memory locations) is likewise divided into equally sized frames so that a frame is capable of storing a page. Virtual pages can be mapped to any frame in main memory, mapped to a location on disk, or not yet be allocated. However, the CPU requires a page to be in a main memory frame when it is being accessed or executed. When a process executes an instruction using a virtual memory address, a hardware unit called the Memory Management Unit (MMU) intervenes and provides the mapping of the virtual address to the physical address. If the physical address of a page is not in main memory, a page fault occurs, and the process is suspended while the page is retrieved and a virtual-to-physical mapping is created. This technique is known as demand paging and is completely transparent to the user process (except for the time it takes to service the page fault). Figure 7.1 shows an example of demand paging.

Virtual memory has implications on data transfer performance in OpenCL, since transferring data from the CPU to the GPU when using a discrete GPU uses Direct Memory Access (DMA) over the PCI-Express bus. DMA is an efficient way to access data directly from a peripheral device without CPU intervention. DMA requires that the data is resident in main memory and will not be moved by the operating system. When the operating system does not have the discretion to move a page, the page is said to be pinned (or page-locked).

The PCI-Express protocol allows any device connected to the bus, such as a GPU, to transfer data to or from the CPU’s main memory. When performing DMA transfers, a device driver running on the CPU supplies a physical address, and the DMA engine on the GPU can then perform the transfer and signal to the CPU when it has completed. Once the transfer completes, the pages can then be unmapped from memory.

Modern x86 systems use an I/O Memory Management Unit (IOMMU) as an interface between the PCI-Express bus and the main memory bus ( AMD IOMMU Architectural Specification; Intel Virtualization Technology for Directed I/O Architecture Specification ). The IOMMU performs the same role for peripheral devices as the MMU does for x86 cores, mapping virtual I/O addresses to physical addresses. The major benefit of utilizing an IOMMU for a GPU is that it allows the device to perform DMA transfers from noncontiguous physical address locations and allows access to physical locations that may be out of the range of addresses supported by the device. A block diagram of system with an IOMMU is shown in Figure 7.2 .

Boot images

A boot image in Configuration Manager is a Windows PE (WinPE) image that is used during an operating system deployment. Boot images are used to start a computer in WinPE, which is a minimal operating system with limited components and services that prepare the destination computer for Windows installation. Configuration Manager provides two boot images: One to support x86 platforms and one to support x64 platforms. These are considered default boot images. Boot images that you create and add to Configuration Manager are considered custom images. Default boot images can be automatically replaced when you update Configuration Manager. For more information about boot images, see Manage boot images.

Operating system images in Configuration Manager are stored in the Windows Imaging (WIM) file format and represent a compressed collection of reference files and folders that are required to successfully install and configure an operating system on a computer. For all operating system deployment scenarios, you must select an operating system image. You can use the default operating system image or build the operating system image from a reference computer that you configure. For more information, see Manage operating system images.

Linux, FreeBSD, and More

No list of alternative PC operating systems could be complete without Linux. It’s the alternative PC operating system. Linux comes in many different flavors, known as Linux distributions. Ubuntu and Mint are some of the most popular. If you want to install a non-Windows operating system on your PC and actually use it, you should probably pick Linux.

Linux is a Unix-like operating system, and there are other open-source operating systems like FreeBSD out there. FreeBSD uses a different kernel, but it uses much of the same software you’d find on a typical Linux distributions. The experience of using FreeBSD on a desktop PC will be pretty similar.


Unlike many of the other hobbyist operating systems here, SkyOS is proprietary and not open-source. You originally had to pay for access so you could use development versions of SkyOS on your own PC. Development on SkyOS ended in 2009, but the last beta version was made available as a free download in 2013.

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Chris Hoffman
Chris Hoffman is Editor-in-Chief of How-To Geek. He’s written about technology for over a decade and was a PCWorld columnist for two years. Chris has written for The New York Times and Reader’s Digest, been interviewed as a technology expert on TV stations like Miami’s NBC 6, and had his work covered by news outlets like the BBC. Since 2011, Chris has written over 2,000 articles that have been read nearly one billion times—and that’s just here at How-To Geek.
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Compare Business Insurance

If you accidentally provide misleading or incorrect advice or services that result in a negative outcome for your client, this type of policy will safeguard you and your business. This kind of insurance covers you for possible legal expenses and any compensation costs you need to pay.

Westfield Insurance

Business Insurance FAQ

Business insurance includes a broad range of policy options designed to protect businesses from financial loss. Every commercial operation has its own unique set of risks, which means a commercial insurance policy must be tailored to the business.

Many factors, from the size of your company, to the number of workers you employ, the materials they handle, and whether you have business vehicles, will determine the specific coverage you need to mitigate risk and protect your company’s financials.

Many business owners find that they must turn to a number of different insurance companies to get all of the coverage needed to cover their risks. If you work with an independent agent , you can get all of your business insurance policies from one office.

What does business insurance cover?

  • General liability insurance: Covers third-party liability claims for injuries to other people.
  • Professional liability and malpractice insurance: Covers professionals against loss due to negligent professional duty, wrongful acts, and advice and services that lead to another person’s loss or injury.
  • Product liability insurance: Covers against faulty products and damage, illness, injury or death that may occur from using a faulty product.
  • Property insurance: Covers loss and damage to your commercial business property due to fires, storms and other causes.
  • Commercial vehicle insurance: Covers commercial vehicles and drivers for collision, liability, property damage, personal injury and comprehensive coverage (also known as "other than collision").
  • Workers’ compensation: Covers your employees if they get ill or are injured while working on the job.
  • Loss of income: Covers your business expenses, such as rent and employee wages, if you can’t operate your business.
  • Key person insurance: Covers loss of income that may result from the head of the business or other key personnel becoming incapacitated or passing away (also known as key man insurance).
  • Cybercrime insurance: Provides protection for risks due to Internet use and online communications.
  • Records retention policies: Covers loss of important data and financial records.
  • Specialty coverage: Insurance that covers various specific business risks, such as those of landlords, farmers, and commercial operations that put on one-day events, such as seminars or concerts.

There are many different scenarios with regard to business risk and how insurance claims are filed. If the incident is a loss suffered by a customer of the company, the injured party is likely to file a claim against the business’s liability policy.

Frequently asked questions

How much does business insurance cost?

Is business insurance tax deductible?

What’s the best type of business insurance?

As business needs will differ between companies and industries, there is no definitive business insurance policy that’s best for every business owner. When taking out business insurance, it’s a good idea to consider the biggest risk factors you should insure against – and assets you want to safeguard.

Furthermore, some business insurance policies are legal requirements in Australia, depending on the nature of your industry. For example, financial advisors and architects are required to have professional indemnity insurance to operate.

Does business insurance cover flood damage?

While business insurance can cover storm damage and rainwater run-off, flood cover is often something that needs to be purchased as an additional extra, and typically isn’t included in standard business insurance policies. It’s important you check the policy’s Product Disclosure Statement (PDS) so that you’re aware of all inclusions and exclusions before taking out insurance.

a cafe preparing for a flood covered by business insurance

What type of business insurance do I need?

The types of business insurance you need will depend on your specific circumstances. For example, if your business property is open to the public, you may find public liability insurance beneficial. If you operate a workshop, you might want to get equipment and machinery breakdown and theft cover for your power tools.

How do I compare business insurance policies?

To find a business insurance policy that aligns with your company and needs, you can try our online comparison tool. After telling us about your business, through our business insurance partner, BizCover, we’ll present you with a range of cover options from some of Australia’s leading insurers. With this, you can compare quotes, the excess payable when you make a claim plus conditions and exclusions.

To make comparing even easier, Bizcover will suggest and explain the types of business insurance policies that are generally taken out by others in your industry. We also give information on additional cover options that offer you a higher level of protection (e.g. cyber liability to cover losses from data breaches).

As you’re comparing these options, it’s important that you carefully weigh up what your business needs. Remember, the cheapest policy may not be the best insurance product for your needs, which is why it’s vital to compare policies to see what each one offers.

The comparison service we offer is free and you can purchase cover straight from our site immediately once you’ve made your selection. If you’d prefer to talk through your options, we have business insurance experts ready to take your call.

What payment options are available?

Generally, you can pay annually or monthly by banking card (credit or debit business cards for example). If you pay monthly there will be a small monthly administration fee as well. You’ll be able to select whether you’re paying annually or monthly when using our comparison service, and you can purchase cover straight from the results page.

Stephen Zeller, General Manager

Next Up In Business Insurance

Information provided on Forbes Advisor is for educational purposes only. Your financial situation is unique and the products and services we review may not be right for your circumstances. We do not offer financial advice, advisory or brokerage services, nor do we recommend or advise individuals or to buy or sell particular stocks or securities. Performance information may have changed since the time of publication. Past performance is not indicative of future results.

Forbes Advisor adheres to strict editorial integrity standards. To the best of our knowledge, all content is accurate as of the date posted, though offers contained herein may no longer be available. The opinions expressed are the author’s alone and have not been provided, approved, or otherwise endorsed by our partners.

Jason Metz is a writer who has worked in the insurance industry since 2007. As a former claims handler and fraud investigator, he’s seen a lot, and enjoys helping others navigate the complexities and opaqueness of insurance. He has a B.S. in Criminal Justice from Kutztown University and an M.F.A. in Creative Writing from the University of California Riverside, Palm Desert.

Compare Business Insurance

The comparison service we offer is free and you can purchase cover straight from our site immediately once you’ve made your selection. If you’d prefer to talk through your options, we have business insurance experts ready to take your call.

Different types of business insurance

Public liability insurance

Public liability insurance covers you should customers, suppliers or members of the public be injured or have their property damaged because of your business operation. It provides a financial safety net for any compensation payments and legal fees.

Professional indemnity insurance

If you accidentally provide misleading or incorrect advice or services that result in a negative outcome for your client, this type of policy will safeguard you and your business. This kind of insurance covers you for possible legal expenses and any compensation costs you need to pay.

Management liability insurance

Management liability covers your business for any wrongful acts from senior managers, which can result in lawsuits, fines and legal costs. With this cover, you can have peace of mind and focus on your business.

Cyber insurance

If you rely on information technology (IT) systems, you might wish to consider cyber liability insurance. It provides insurance if your business is hacked, hit with a ransomware attack or suffers a data breach.

Statutory liability insurance

Directors and officers insurance

Directors and officers of companies and corporations can have insurance for their own liabilities, as there is additional scrutiny on these important roles. This includes cover for legal defence, inquiries and penalties.

Compare Business Insurance

*iSelect’s partnered with BizCover Pty Ltd to compare a range of small business insurers and policies in the market. Not all policies are available at all times or in all areas. Our advice on this website is general in nature and does not consider your situation or needs. Consider if any advice is appropriate for you before acting on it. Learn more

Professional indemnity insurance

Do you provide specialist or professional advice in your business? Professional Indemnity insurance could provide some protection for your business against certain claims for damages resulting from your negligent act, error, or omission while you’re working for a client. Keep reading to learn if it’s suitable for your business.

Cyber liability insurance

More and more businesses are dependent on digital infrastructure, leaving you exposed to cybercrime. Cyber liability insurance can cover your business’s exposure due to data breaches, as well as theft or loss of customer information, from a cybercrime incident. Keep reading to learn what’s covered.

Personal accident insurance

Are you the sole income earner in your family? Having Personal Accident insurance may be of benefit to you, should the unexpected happen. This product can cover you for lost income if you suffer an injury or illness that prevents you from performing your regular work and earning your usual income.

Tradies insurance

If you’re a tradesperson, it’s important to have suitable protection for yourself, your business, and your equipment should something unexpected occur. There are a variety of products which may be suitable for your business, including Public Liability cover, and insurance for your tools. Keep reading to learn more.

How you can compare business insurance with iSelect & BizCover

Get acquainted

Understand your options

Get covered

What is business insurance and how does it work?

How to compare business insurance policies online

What are the different types of business insurance products?

  • Public liability insurance: Is designed to provide protection for you and your business in the event a customer, supplier, or a member of the public make a claim because they are injured or sustain property damage as a result of your negligent business activities
  • Professional indemnity: Can protect your business against claims for damages resulting from your negligent act, error, or omission while you’re working for a client
  • Cyber liability: Can provide cover for your business’s exposure due to data breaches or theft or loss of client information that result from cybercrime, including the costs of recovering data, fines and penalties, extortion costs and expenses from any disruptions caused by cybercrime
  • Management liability: Covers both the business and its directors and officers for claims arising from any actual or alleged mismanagement of the business
  • Personal Accident & Illness: provides income support in the event you are prevented from working due to an injury or illness
  • Business insurance pack: Covers your business, including its premises and contents, against loss, damage or theft. There are a number of options that you can choose to include in a business insurance pack, including:
  • Contents: cover for your contents and stock against perils such as fire
  • Building: covers the cost of repairing or rebuilding your business premises (that you own) as a result of perils such as fire
  • Business interruption: Covers lost income and increased costs of operating your business that result from an interruption from specified events and can help to pay ongoing expenses and maintain profits
  • Employee dishonesty: Covers losses resulting from employee theft or fraud
  • Property in transit: Covers theft or damage of your property, such as tools and equipment, in transit by road vehicle owned or operated by you anywhere in Australia
  • Glass: covers accidental breakage to internal and external glass
  • Machinery breakdown: covers damage to machinery caused by breakdown as well as deterioration of stock in some circumstances
  • Portable Equipment: covers loss of tools and equipment
  • Tax audit: covers the fees of external accountants incurred in responding to a tax audit of your business

How much does business insurance cost?

  • Business industry: Are you administrative, construction or something else?
  • Nature of the business: What kind of work do you carry out in your industry?
  • Location: Where you’re located, but also where do you operate?
  • Size: This includes number of employees and premises, as well as your overall business income
  • Claims history: Have you previously had to make insurance claims regarding your business?
  • Nominated sum insured: The amount your insurer will pay in the event of a claim can significantly impact the cost of your insurance premium
  • Products produced and/or sold: If your product is expensive, or comes with clear potential risks, this could increase the cost of your premium
  • Third party interaction: If you interact with other businesses, either through partnerships, outsourcing or as a supplier, or with the public, this may be seen as a risk to your insurer, depending on the relationship and the company
  • Other risk factors: This could range from how saturated your business market is, to how volatile your products and services are

How does business insurance work for home businesses?

  • Your industry
  • The nature of your business
  • The risks involved in running your business
  • Whether you provide products or services
  • Whether you travel for work
  • Whether you have employees or not
  • How much equipment you have and its cost
  • Whether you can support yourself should your business be interrupted
  • Product liability: Covers you for claims against you as a result of injury, damage or death from your product. Will typically be combined with Public Liability cover
  • Personal Accident: Covers your income (up to certain limits) if you’re unable to work due to illness or injury
  • Burglary: Insures your assets against theft
  • Computer and electronic equipment: Covers your electronic items from theft, destruction or damage
  • Goods/Property in transit: Protects your goods and equipment from loss or damage when in transit in a vehicle owned by you
  • Business interruption: Covers ongoing expenses and helps maintain profit if you’re unable to work due to from the occurrence of an insured event
  • Public liability insurance: Covers you and your business in the event a customer, supplier or a member of the public are injured or sustain property damage as a result of your negligent business activities


Discover the 5 Different Types of Business-Level Strategies

A business strategy consultant’s communication skills must be on point. Clarity of thought in emails, speaker notes in presentations, or telephonic conversations is a must. The expectations about the outcomes must be communicated at the outset.

Business strategy consultant role dimensions.

Strategy Cornell

This certificate program will help you address today’s most pressing strategic business questions and design a strategy for your own organization. Using game theory to enhance your view of the marketplace, you will examine change, disruption, and uncertainty in your industry, and devise strategies to respond to these variables effectively. As part of this strategy, you’ll have the opportunity to assess possible internal roadblocks to overcome and create a plan to surmount them. Evaluating a series of approaches including M&A, strategic alliances, and organic growth, you will also identify potential synergies to boost your organization’s value creation and profitability and develop the necessary skills to optimize the web of relationships that drive your business. Finally, you will explore ways to leverage the power of digital platforms to grow your organization, through in-house development or advantageous interactions with outside platforms.

Throughout the program, you’ll engage with many detailed real-world examples and practical exercises that will help you see the world differently and ultimately develop savvier strategies to create sustained business success.

This program includes a year of free access to Symposium! These events feature several days of live, highly participatory virtual Zoom sessions with Cornell faculty and experts to explore the most pressing leadership topics. Symposium events are held several times throughout the year. Once enrolled in your program, you will receive information about upcoming events.

How to develop and implement business-level strategies

Once you’ve chosen which business-level strategy you feel will work best for your business it’s time to create your business’s goals (including your company’s vision) and pricing strategy . Once you’ve got that down, a strategic plan can be created outlining how to achieve them. Make sure to check in on your progress to make sure you are really scaling your business .

There are so many different business strategies, here we outlined the top 5. To choose and implement the correct one, you’ll need to put yourself in your customer’s shoes, look at the market and think deeply about the core foundations of your business. With this in mind, developing your strategy should become much, much easier.

Business Level Strategies

Disclaimer: The information contained in this article is provided for informational purposes only, should not be construed as legal advice on any subject matter and should not be relied upon as such. The author accepts no responsibility for any consequences whatsoever arising from the use of such information.

Related Posts

Do You Need a Business Strategy Consultant?

Business concept sketch in front of an entrepreneur

The short answer is yes. Firms need a business strategy consultant as they help provide a fresh perspective. The important thing is that this perspective is also unbiased. A thorough analysis of performance can reveal pain points that have been ignored so far.

Business strategy consultants also provide for a level of focus that cannot be expected of company executives. This is because often, they have a single-point agenda, unlike the top leadership, who have a company to run.

These consultants often enjoy access to a vast network of information. These include industry data and market trend reports. Their colleagues might have also dealt with similar problems and pitched in to help.

Industry regulations change from time to time. Business strategy consultants are familiar with these changes and understand the implications and repercussions of such changes. They also come in with no baggage or assumptions as they do not have any stake in the firm, monetary or otherwise.

Being impartial, they present their views in an unclouded manner. They are aware of the tools, resources, and methods to evaluate and drive business performance. Therefore, business strategy consultants save a firm’s costs on employee recruitment, training, and benefits.


A business strategy consultant can be a boon for businesses. Firms are saved from the time-consuming process of constituting in-house teams. These teams will then begin drafting plans from scratch. They also provide ideas that are different from the ones already considered by the team.

Business strategy consulting is an exciting field as one gets exposure to various industries and their challenges. To become a strategy consultant is imperative to understand the value one brings to the table, and the best way to demonstrate this value is to help the clients realize their objectives.

In addition, documenting one’s successes in the form of case studies, white papers, or customer testimonials is essential. The fact that one has a proven track record boosts confidence amongst potential clients.


An Overview of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

But the problem with that idea is the fact that the test is notoriously inconsistent. Research has found that as many as 50 percent of people arrive at a different result the second time they take a test, even if it’s just five weeks later.

Why the Myers-Briggs test is totally meaningless

“There’s just no evidence behind it,” says Adam Grant, an organizational psychologist at the University of Pennsylvania who’s written about the shortcomings of the Myers-Briggs previously. “The characteristics measured by the test have almost no predictive power on how happy you’ll be in a situation, how you’ll perform at your job, or how happy you’ll be in your marriage.”

The test claims that based on 93 questions, it can group all the people of the world into 16 different discrete “types” — and in doing so, serve as “a powerful framework for building better relationships, driving positive change, harnessing innovation, and achieving excellence.” Most of the faithful think of it primarily as a tool for telling you your proper career choice.

But the test was developed in the 1940s based on the totally untested theories of Carl Jung and is now thoroughly disregarded by the psychology community . Even Jung warned that his personality “types” were just rough tendencies he’d observed, rather than strict classifications. Several analyses have shown the test is totally ineffective at predicting people’s success in various jobs, and that about half of the people who take it twice get different results each time.

Yet you’ve probably heard people telling you that they’re an ENFJ (extroverted intuitive feeling judging), an INTP (introverted intuitive thinking perceiving), or another one of the 16 types drawn from Jung’s work, and you may have even been given this test in a professional setting. Here’s an explanation of why these labels are so meaningless — and why no organization in the 21st century should rely on the test for anything.

An Overview of the Test

Based on the answers to the questions on the inventory, people are identified as having one of 16 personality types. The goal of the MBTI is to allow respondents to further explore and understand their own personalities including their likes, dislikes, strengths, weaknesses, possible career preferences, and compatibility with other people.

No one personality type is “best” or “better” than another. It isn’t a tool designed to look for dysfunction or abnormality. Instead, its goal is simply to help you learn more about yourself. The questionnaire itself is made up of four different scales.

Extraversion (E) – Introversion (I)

The extraversion-introversion dichotomy was first explored by Jung in his theory of personality types as a way to describe how people respond and interact with the world around them. While these terms are familiar to most people, the way in which they are used in the MBTI differs somewhat from their popular usage.

Extraverts (also often spelled extroverts) are “outward-turning” and tend to be action-oriented, enjoy more frequent social interaction, and feel energized after spending time with other people. Introverts are “inward-turning” and tend to be thought-oriented, enjoy deep and meaningful social interactions, and feel recharged after spending time alone.

Sensing (S) – Intuition (N)

This scale involves looking at how people gather information from the world around them. Just like with extraversion and introversion, all people spend some time sensing and intuiting depending on the situation. According to the MBTI, people tend to be dominant in one area or the other.

People who prefer sensing tend to pay a great deal of attention to reality, particularly to what they can learn from their own senses. They tend to focus on facts and details and enjoy getting hands-on experience. Those who prefer intuition pay more attention to things like patterns and impressions. They enjoy thinking about possibilities, imagining the future, and abstract theories.

Thinking (T) – Feeling (F)

This scale focuses on how people make decisions based on the information that they gathered from their sensing or intuition functions. People who prefer thinking place a greater emphasis on facts and objective data.

Judging (J) – Perceiving (P)

The final scale involves how people tend to deal with the outside world. Those who lean toward judging prefer structure and firm decisions. People who lean toward perceiving are more open, flexible, and adaptable. These two tendencies interact with the other scales.

Remember, all people at least spend some time engaged in extraverted activities. The judging-perceiving scale helps describe whether you behave like an extravert when you are taking in new information (sensing and intuiting) or when you are making decisions (thinking and feeling).

Other Personality Tests, Insights, and Variations of the Myers Briggs Test

The Myers Briggs test is one of the most popular personality tests, but it’s far from the only personality tests. Other tests and methods for assessing personality and compatibility are used in the workplace, among friends, and in popular culture!

Type A vs. Type B

Big Five

The Big Five test is one of the most studied personality tests in psychology. It is the result of many psychologists trying to determine how many “traits” define a person’s personality. The “Big Five” stand for Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism. Like the Myers Briggs test, each trait has an “opposite” trait. A person may display high agreeableness, for example, and low extraversion. These traits are also used to describe entire cultures and communities.

DiSC Assessment

The DiSC Assessment was actually in the works years before the Myers-Briggs Personality Assessment, but hasn’t seen as much popularity outside of the workplace. Many leaders use this assessment to discover how they and their team members work together. Test results put you in one of four categories: D (dominance,) i (influence,) S (steadiness,) or C (conscientiousness.)


Are you a helper, reformer, or a loyalist? Peacemaker, challenger, enthusiast? What about an investigator, individualist, or achiever? These are the nine personality types laid out by the enneagram. The personality types are strategically numbered and placed to create personality “sub types” that further reveals a person’s personality. A 2w3, for example, is a type two with a three wing. The person’s main personality type is 2, the “Helper” with elements of 3, the “Achiever.” Like the DiSC assessment and Myers-Briggs Personality Types, the enneagram is not a science-based personality test, but very popular!


No need to take a test – just know the time, date, and place of your birth! Forms of astrology have been around for almost 2,500 years. It may not be based in Western science, but it has certainly stood the test of time. By knowing your birth chart, you can learn a lot about how you approach relationships, work, and yourself! A full birth chart doesn’t just show you your star or moon sign either. You will see what sign you are for each of the planets, offering deeper information about yourself and what might be in store for you over the period of days, months, or even years.

Dark Triad

Not all personality tests reveal the positive traits of your personality. The Dark Triad test reveals how much three negative traits may impact your relationships. These traits are Narcissism, Psychopathy, and Machiavellianism. Yeah, not exactly a score you want. The results of this test show how you compare to the rest of the population. Everyone has some good and some bad in them!

I hope you’ve enjoyed this Myers Briggs test and detail page. Feel free to leave a comment below of any questions you have! I promise soon I’ll have a free printable myers-briggs personality test link added to this page, and you’ll be able to download it soon. I’m actually hiring a designer to make it very appealing and easy to take.


Cause of Stress in College Students Guide

The educational system also plays an enabling role subsequently leading to increased stress levels experienced by students. Some of the sources include overcrowded lecture halls, semester grading system, inadequate resources and facilities (Awing& Agolla, 2008), vastness of syllabus (Agrawal &Chahar, 2007; Sreeramareddy et al., 2007), long hours and expectations of rote learning (Deb et al., 2015). Parents and institutions relentlessly instill the fear of failure which affects their self-esteem and confidence. Ang & Huan (2006) reported increased expectations as one of the factors responsible for increased stress levels.


Essay Sample on Causes and Effects of Stress on Students, With Outline

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Are you ready to find your fit?

In the guide that follows, students will learn about common forms of stress encountered in college, what causes stress in the first place, how stress manifests itself in college students, meditation and mindfulness, and what to look for if a student feels he/she or a friend may be in over their head. The guide also provides a comprehensive list of resources to help students navigate this time of transition and graduate as happy and healthy adults.

As an incoming college freshman, experiencing life as an adult and acclimating to the numerous and varied types of demands placed on them can be a truly overwhelming experience. It can also lead to unhealthy amounts of stress. A report by the Anxiety and Depression Association of America found that 80 percent of college students frequently or sometimes experience daily stress. With a growing pressure to do it all and be successful, students must learn how to healthfully identify and manage stress points to maintain balance throughout their collegiate career. Thankfully, this guide was designed to provide insight on how to do just that.

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College Tip Student Health: – Insurance, Waivers & More

College Parents of America has been an active contributor to the topic of student health. There are many topics to consider. We try to make it simple and easy for college parents with three college student health tips for parents.


Jed Foundation: Summer & Back To School Tips for College Students

Depending on when your school starts, you’re probably weeks or maybe a short month from the start of classes. How do the college mental health experts at the Jed Foundation suggest that you spend those remaining days?



Notice is hereby given that the Annual Meeting of Board of Directors of College Parents of America will be held in Phoenix, Arizona through Conference Call on June 21, 2013, 11:00 AM, Arizona Time / 2:00 EST. The conference call information is as follows:To call into the meeting, dial (617) 410-9060, then enter the passcode: 0755.The Annual Meeting of College Parents of America members shall be held for the purpose of transacting such business as may come before the meeting:The Agenda will review the following topics:

How can college students combat stress?

  • The first wealth is your health, if you want to combat stress then you should have to maintain a healthy diet for your daily routine.
  • If you want to combat your academic stress then you should have to manage your time for doing all your daily homework, assignments and make sure to complete them before the deadlines.
  • Much research has proved that exercise is very helpful for a human being to reduce their stress. So if you want to win the battle with stress then make sure to exercise daily.
  • If you are doing a part-time job with your studies then you can handle the stress of a part-time job and studies easily. You just need to make a schedule for your study according to your job time duration.

We have mentioned all the major causes and effects of stress on college students. We also mentioned all the key points that one should follow to combat stress. So we hope that our blog becomes helpful for you to understand all the reasons behind the stress of college students, along with you also get a better understanding of the negative effects of too much stress on students’ life. But still, if you find any confusion regarding any of the academic problems then don’t feel any hesitation to contact us anytime at

WE have a team of experts that is available for all types of academic assignment help at 24*7 hours. We are providing our services all around the world at an affordable price. Along with we are also providing our services to the students who are looking for Assignment Help Canberra and Assignment Help Brisbane.

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Academic Stress and its Sources Among University Students

Academic stress has been identified as the primary cause of these alarming figures.Lee & Larson (2000) explain this stress as an interaction between environmental stressors, student’s appraisal and reactions for the same. It has now become a grave reality that is termed as a “career stopper” (Kadapatti & Vijayalaxmi, 2012). It therefore,becomes a significant cause of concern as it is symptomatic of rising mental health concerns in India (Nadamuri & Ch,2011).

It becomes imperative to also understand that low stress does not necessarily ascertain that students will perform better, but in fact under these circumstances, they would perceive the task as unchallenging and may also get easily bored (Uchil, 2017). Though certain levels of stress push students towards optimum performance, when it is not managed efficiently due to inadequate resources to cope with the stress, it can have dismal consequences for the student as well as the institution.

The stress response elicited by every individual is identical regardless of the trigger causing. For example, marital stress, exam anxiety, work stress, etc. would elicit identical physiological responses from the body. This happens primarily due to the adreno-medullary system, which is part of the sympathetic division of our nervous system and the adrenocortical axis (Bourne & Yaroush, 2003) resulting in the “fight or flight” reaction. Some of the physiological changes that can be observed in the body are changes in heart rate(HR), blood pressure (BP), respiratory rate, increased blood flow towards skeletal muscles, etc.

While the stress response may be identical, the sources of stress reported by individuals vary. These differences would be seen in the causes, sources and consequences of stressors. Some of the common stressors reported in an academic setting include excessive assignments, poor time management and social skills, peer competition, etc. (Fairbrother & Warn, 2003). These results are consistent with studies conducted in India as well as reported by Sreeramareddy, Shankar, Binu, Mukopadhyay, Ray & Menezes (2007).